Wahhabi Fitnah in the Indian subcontinent – 6

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The Ahlu’s Sunnah scholars have described criteria and conditions that are to be met before someone can be ruled an apostate.

(1) Takallum – that a particular statement was certainly said;
(2) Kalam – that such a statement is certainly blasphemous;
(3) Mutakallim – that such a statement was certainly said by the person.

When there is not the frailest doubt [or misunderstanding] in any of the criteria above OR when there is not an acceptable explanation, only then can a ruling of apostacy be issued. This is the same for both actions and words [amounting to blasphemy]. This principle can be understood by a simple example. If Zayd claims to be a Muslim, then the ruling of apostacy [takfeer] can be issued only if he denies or contravenes any necessary article of faith either through his words or his actions and such a denial or contravention has:

(1) indeed occurred
(2) such words or actions are indeed blasphemous
(3) such words or actions are indeed proved to be that of Zayd.

And only when all three aspects above are conclusively proven and ascertained, the ruling of apostacy [takfeer] can be pronounced for Zayd.

The unambiguous position of the scholars of Ahlu’s Sunnah concerning the leaders of Deoband and their infamous statements is that: any person who has complete knowledge of these statements and clear understanding of those statements, and yet, does not consider such people as disbelievers is a disbeliever himself. That is, being fully cognizant of the issue and complete understanding of those statements is a necessary condition for ruling the second person [the follower or admirer of Deobandi elders] an apostate.

The doctrine and the actions of Ahlu’s Sunnah are those which have been handed down from the time of the Prophet and his companions [Sahabah] to their successors [Tabiyeen] and that which have been documented in the books of tafseer, hadith, fiqh, tasawwuf, seerah and tareekh. The writings and speeches of the scholars of Farangi Mahal, Lucknow, Khayrabad, Badayun and Bareilly conform to this very set of beliefs. They are the true spokesmen of the teachings and opinions of scholars like Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dihlawi (d. 1052 AH) and Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dihlawi (d. 1239 AH) who are the true heirs of Islamic scholars. They do not accept nor even contemplate novel ideas that contradict Islamic doctrine. They hold fast unto the doctrine propounded and promulgated by the elders; they consider this to be a precious gift and a path for their own salvation and that of other Muslims.

Maulana Nayimuddin Muradabadi, a deputy of Imam Ahmad Raza Hanafi Barkati Barelwi, writes:

“A Sunni is one, who is a living example of Maa ana ‘alaihi wa as’habi. They are upon the creed of the Khulafa al-Rashideen, the Imams of religion [both fiqh and tasawwuf] and among the latter scholars Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dihlawi, Malik al-Ulama Bahr al-Uloom Maulana Abdul Ali Farangi Mahalli, Maulana Fazle Haq Khairabadi, Maulana Shah Fazl e Rasool Badayuni, Mufti Irshad Husain Rampuri and Maulana Mufti Shah Ahmed Raza Barelwi, may Allah have mercy on them.”[1]

Imam Ahmed Raza Barelwi in his fatawa – like other scholars of Ahlu’s Sunnah – has enjoined Muslims to be steadfast in their belief and better their social standing. These are available as small booklets and following are the subjects of his fatawa :

– Shari’ah is the ultimate law and following it is obligatory for all Muslims;

– to refrain from Bid’ah is of utmost importance

– a Sufi without knowledge or a Shaykh without actions is a joke of the devil;

– it is impermissible to imitate the Kuffar, to mingle with the misguided [and heretics] and to participate in the festivals of the Hindus.

– it is polytheism [shirk] to prostrate to any other than Allah táālā with the intention of worship. And if such a prostration is out of reverence [sajdah at-taĥiyyah], it is Haram.

– it is prohibited to ridicule other muslims and consider oneself higher than others.

– the iconography of the Shi`ah [ta’aziyah] and respecting such icons is forbidden

– Qawwali [sama’a] with musical instruments is forbidden

– it is not permissible for women to travel to visit graves [or maqams of awliya]

– it is not permissible to make pictures of living things.

– abbreviating the blessing ‘sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam’ to an acronym ‘sa’d lam ayn meem’, [in english it is abbreviated as PBUH] is impermissible

– to visit fake graves [that have no basis or record but simply the product of folklore] is impermissible

– feeding the poor and needy with the intention to donate the reward to the dead is permissible; but to hold obsequies and banquets where even the rich are invited is impermissible

For further details, see my book, “Imam Ahmed Raza aur Radd e Bid’aat-o-Munkaraat”, [Imām Aĥmed Rida and his refutation of heresies and innovations] published in India and Pakistan.

He had the same opinion like that of the Sawad al-A’dham (the great majority) of the Ahlu’s Sunnah wal Jama’ah; similar to that of the scholars of Badayun, Khairabad, Bareilly, the masters of Marahra and Kichaucha with regards to the following practices and beliefs are permissible:

– that intercession [tawassul] of the Prophets and saints is permissible

– to respect relics of the prophets and elders and to rever them

– visit shrines or graves of saints with the intention of tawassul

– to celebrate ‘Urs which is free from impermissible practises and sin

– to celebrate the birthday of the prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam [Mawlid, Qiyam] and to stand up in his honor

– to donate reward of good deeds to the dead [Fatiha and Isaal al-Thawab] etc.

These are practices permitted by our predecessors and even today, 90% of the Muslims of the world practice these actions.

The newly published Arabic book, Mafaheem Yajib an Tusahhaha [2] [Matters that need to be Clarified], by the late Sayyid Muhammad bin Alawi ibn Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki is a detailed exposition and research on the practices of the Ahlu’s Sunnah. Many contemporary Arab and African scholars have endorsed this book, many of whom are the members of Raabta al-‘Aalam-e-Islami, Makka. I have translated this book into Urdu by the name of Islah-e-Fikr-o-I’ytiqad, which has been published both in India and Pakistan.

Sayyid Muhammad Faruq al-Qadri, the Urdu translator of Anfas al-‘Arifeen, an important book on taşawwuf among the followers of Shah Waliyullah, writes the following about the practices of Ahlu’s Sunnah:

“Imagine! Were Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dihlawi, Shah Abdur Raheem, Shaykh Abū’r Rida and Siraj al-Hind Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz all Barelwis? Maulana Shah Ahmed Raza Barelwi and Darul Uloom Deoband were not even in existence when these disagreements began.

It is ironic that the first thing that disrupted the peaceful environment of the Subcontinent was a member of this prominent family [of Shah Waliyullah] – Shah Muhammad Ismay’il and his Taqwiyatul Iman. His thought was unacceptable, his beckoned towards a strange idea and his way of invitation was warlike.

I have seen a list of 250 books written as a rebuttal to Taqwiyatul Iman in various languages as soon as it was published. From this, one can surmise the reaction towards this book amongst both ordinary Muslims and scholars.

We have no proof to say that all the scholars, Sufis and ordinary Muslims were steeped in polytheism and heresy [Shirk and Bid’ah] and that Shah Muhammad Isma’il was enlightening the nation and introducing them to real Tawĥīd for the first time.

After all, what is the time gap between Shah Waliyullah, Shah Abdul Aziz and Shah Muhammad Isma’il?

Had the entire Subcontinent been engulfed in Kufr and Shirk in this very short period?

And if it was already afflicted with Shirk and Kufr, then why did Hakeem al-Ummah Shah Waliullah and Shah Abdul Aziz not use the same harsh language [as Shah Isma’il]?

The reality of the matter is that, the first voice that erred from the creed of Sawad al-A’dhamor the Great Majority that shook the Subcontinent was that of Shah Isma’il. Certainly, this can be termed as an invitation to the movement of Muhammad bin Abdu’l Wahhab an-Najdi but it surely not a call towards the thought or practices of Shah Waliyullah.”[3]

The movement to protect the Ahlu’s Sunnah and to reinstill the respect of the Prophet in the hearts of Muslims, was led by the scholars of Khairabad, Badayun and Bareilly. This movement came into prominence as an answer to the Wahabi movement and was greatly aided by the Imam of the Ahlu’s Sunnah, Maulana Ahmed Raza Hanafi Qadri Barkati Barelwi (d. 1340 AH, 1921 CE) whose immense knowledge and outstanding leadership saw to it that the creed of Ahlu’s Sunnah, the creed of our predecessors, our elder scholars prevailed.

A brief list of scholars, institutions and publishing houses that belong to the Ahlu’s Sunnah is in order.

Scholars among many others, may Allah have mercy on them all:

· Mawlānā Waşī Aĥmed Muĥaddith Sūratī
· Mawlānā Amjad Álī Azmi
· Mawlānā Nayimuddin Muradabadi
· Sayyid Jama’at Ali Shah Muhaddith Alipuri
· Mawlānā Sayyid Deedar Ali Alwari
· Mawlānā Hamid Raza Qadri
· Mawlānā Mustafa Raza Qadri Noori
· Mawlānā Abdul Muqtadir Badayuni
· Mawlānā Abdul Qadeer Badayuni
· Mawlānā Abdul Aleem Siddiqi
· Mawlānā Sayyid Muhammad Muhaddith Ashrafi Kachochwi
· Mawlānā Zafaruddin Qadri Bihari
· Mufti Muhammad Abdul Baqi Burhanul Haq Jabalpuri
· Mawlānā Hashmat Ali Lakhnawi
· Mawlānā Karamatullah Dihlawi
· Mawlānā Hasnayn Raza Barelwi

Contemporary scholars:

  • Mufti Muhammad Akhtar Raza Qadri Azhari
  • Mawlānā Shah Ahmad Noorani
  • Mawlānā Tahseen Raza Barelwi
  • Mufti Muhammad Shariful Haq Amjadi
  • ‘Allama Arshadul Qadri
  • ‘Allama Sayyid Mahmood Ahmad Rizvi Lahori
  • Mufti Abdul Mannan Azmi
  • Mufti Ghulam Muhammad Rizvi Nagpuri
  • Mufti Muhammad Abdul Qayyum Qadri Hazarvi
  • Prof. Muhammad Mas’ud Ahmad Mujaddidi Mazhari
  • Mufti Zafar Ali Nu’mani
  • Mufti Jalaluddin Ahmad Amjadi
  • Mawlānā Sayyid Muhammad Madni Ashrafi Kachochwi
  • Mufti Muhammad Ashfaq Husain Na’imi
  • ‘Allama Zia-ul-Mustafa Qadri
  • Khwaja Muzaffar Husain Rizvi
  • Mawlānā Mujeeb Ashraf Rizvi
  • Mawlānā Abdul Hakeem Sharf Qadri
  • Shah Turabul Haq Qadri
  • Sayyid Hamid Ashraf Kachochwi
  • Mawlānā Qamaruzzaman Azmi
  • Mawlānā Muhammad Ahmad Azmi Misbahi

Institutions and Universities [or Madrasah, Jami`ah] of Ahlu’s Sunnah:

  • Manzar-e-Islam, Bareilly
  • Mazhar-e-Islam, Bareilly
  • Al-Jamiatul Ashrafiyah, Mubarakpur
  • Jamia Na’yimia, Muradabad
  • Darul Uloom Hizbul Ahnaaf, Lahore
  • Darul Uloom Amjadia, Karachi
  • Jamia Nizamia Rizvia, Lahore
  • Darul Uloom Ishaqia, Jodhpur
  • Markaz al-Thaqafat al-Sunniya, Calicut, Kerala
  • Jamia Sa’dia, Kasargod, Kerala
  • Jamia Hazrat Nizamuddin Awliya, New Delhi
  • Darul Uloom Amjadia, Nagpur
  • Darul Uloom Faizur Rasool, Bara’un Shareef
  • Jamia Ashraf, Kichaucha Shareef
  • Jamia Hameedia Rizvia, Banaras
  • Jamia Na’yimia, Lahore
  • Darul Uloom Na’yimia, Karachi
  • Al-Jamiatul Islamia, Ronahi, Faizabad
  • Darul Uloom ‘Aleemia, Jamdashahi, Basti
  • Darul Uloom Muhammadia, Mumbai
  • Faizul Uloom, Jamshedpur
  • Zia-ul-Islam, Hora, Bengal
  • Anwar-ul-Qur’an, Balrampur
  • Darul Uloom Ghareeb Nawaz, Ilahabad
  • Ahsan-ul-Madaris, Kanpur
  • Darul Uloom Warsia, Lucknow

Publishers:

  • Sunni Darul Isha’at, Mubarakpur
  • Al-Majma’ al-Islami, Mubarakpur
  • Markazi Majlis-e-Raza, Lahore
  • Raza Academy, Lahore
  • Raza Academy, Mumbai
  • Idara Tahqeeqat-e-Imam Ahmad Raza, Karachi
  • Idara Ma’arif-e-Nu’mania, Lahore
  • Darul Qalam, Dehli
  • Al-Majma’ al-Misbahi, Mubarakpur
  • Idara-e-Afkar-e-Haq, Baisi Purniya
  • Maktaba Jaam-e-Noor, Delhi
  • Faruqia Book Depot, Delhi
  • Rizvi Kitab Ghar, Delhi and Bhiwandi
  • Maktaba Na’imia, Delhi
  • Kutub Khana Amjadia, Basti
  • Qadri Kitab Ghar, Bareilly
  • Qadri Book Depot, Bareilly
  • Maktaba Rahmania Rizvia, Bareilly

Periodicals:

  • Monthly Kanzul Iman, Dehli
  • Monthly Ashrafia, Mubarakpur
  • Monthly Jahan-e-Raza, Lahore
  • Monthly Sunni Dunya, Bareilly
  • Monthly A’la Hazrat, Bareilly
  • Monthly Taybah, Ahmadabad
  • Monthly Yaseen, Kota, Rajasthan
  • Monthly Sirat-e-Mustaqeem, Udaipur, Rajasthan
  • Monthly Maah-e-Taybah, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
  • Quarterly al-Kausar, Sahsaram
  • Annual Ma’arif-e-Raza, Karachi
  • Monthly Zia-e-Haram, Lahore

The focal point of all these institutions is, “Oh Allah! Guide us upon the straight path. The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; not those who have earned Your anger and those gone astray”.

A few of the awliya in the subcontinent, may Allāh be pleased with them:

  • Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh Hujweri Lahori
  • Hazrat Khwaja Muyinuddin Chishti Ajmeri
  • Hazrat Shaykh Bahauddin Zakariya Multani
  • Hazrat Khwaja Fariduddin Ganj Shakar
  • Hazrat Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtyar Kaki
  • Hazrat Makhdoom ‘Alauddin Ali Ahmad Sabir Kalyari
  • Hazrat Mahboob-e-Ilahi Nizamuddin Awliya
  • Hazrat Sharfuddin Yahya Muneeri
  • Hazrat Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahan Gasht
  • Ameer Kabeer Hazrat Sayyid Ali Hamdani
  • Hazrat Makhdoom Sayyid Ashraf Jahangir Samnani
  • Hazrat Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dihlawi
  • Hazrat Mujaddid Alf e Thani Shaykh Ahmad Faruqi Sarhandi

Muslims following in their footsteps attain high ranks and immense favour of Allāh táālā even to this day. These are the pure souls who enlightened the subcontinent with the blessing of Islam and faith, and made it an epicentre of light.

[1] Al-Faqeeh, page 9, Amritsar – 21st August, 1925 CE

[2] First published in 1985, Cairo

[3] Anfas al-‘Arifeen, page 18-19. Maktaba al-Falah, Deoband

This is a translation of Mawlana Yaseen Akhtar Misbahi booklet:

AHLU’S SUNNAH WA’L JAMA’AH

AN INTRODUCTION

Ahle Sunnah wa’l Jama’at ka ijmaali ta’aruf.

Translated by Muhammad Aqdas

Ahlu’s Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah – An Introduction

Read the original Pdf: Here

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Allah will never allow my Ummah to unite upon misguidance and incorrect beliefs. Allah’s mercy, blessings and protection are with the largest group of Muslims. And he who deviates from this largest group of Muslims will be thrown into Hell.”

(Tirmizi)

“…The Prophet (Sallal Laahu Alaihi Wasallam) remarked:

“Leave him, as his slaying will serve no good purpose, as he is not the only individual but there are a host of others like him and if you compare their prayers and fasting to that of yours, you yourself will feel ashamed.

These are the people who will recite the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats, with all these apparent virtues they will leave the fold of Deen just like the arrow leaves the bow.”

[Miskhat Shareef, PP. 535]