Fath ul Bari Ba-Sharah Sahih al-Bukhari, Published by Maktaba Dar ul Marifah, Beirut, Lebanon

Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani (rah) said: The root meaning of innovation is what is produced without precedent. It is applied in the law in opposition to the Sunna and is therefore blameworthy. Strictly speaking, if it is part of what is classified as commendable by the law then it is a “Good innovation (hasana)”, while if it is part of what is classified as blameworthy by the law then it is blameworthy (mustaqbaha), otherwise it falls in the category of what is permitted indifferently (mubah). It can be divided into the known five categories.” “obligatory” (wajib), “forbidden” (haram), “recommended” (mandub), “disliked” (makruh), and “indifferently permitted” (mubah). [Fath ul Bari: Volume 004, Page No. 253]

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